What is a Dividend? Here's a Complete and In-depth Discussion


Dividends are a form of investment gain. They are paid out of the company's earnings directly to shareholders, who can cash them out or reinvest them. Usually, dividends are taxed on the shareholders who receive them.
The best benefit of owning a stake in an established, bona fide business is the possibility of enjoying some of the profits the organization generates.
Whether it's a private family company or a stake in a multinational conglomerate, when a company decides to send you a portion of its after-tax income, you've received dividends.
Learn more about how dividends work, how they differ from capital gains, and more through this article.

What is a dividend?

Dividends can be described as gifts given by public companies to their shareholders, and the source is the company's net income.
These rewards can be in the form of cash, cash equivalents, shares, etc. And most of it is paid out of the remaining portion of the profit after important costs are met. The board of directors of the company decides the dividend rate, at which the approval of the majority shareholder is also taken into account.
However, companies may decide to retain their accumulated profits to reinvest in the business or save them for future use.
Furthermore, announcements about dividend income announcements mostly accompany significant increases or decreases in the value of the company's shares.

How do dividends work?

Dividends are an important aspect of owning shares. Many investors expect regular payments as compensation for keeping their money in the company.
Any company that is open to shareholders needs to decide how much money to keep in retained earnings and how much to return to shareholders.
Retained earnings are important for maintaining capital in a company and reinvesting profits for its future growth.
When a company decides to start paying dividends, it needs to determine its payment schedule and the amount to be paid per share.
For example, suppose a company board of directors announces that it will pay a quarterly dividend of $1 per share. An investor who owns 1,000 shares will not only benefit from any increase in share value, but also from the quarterly dividend of $ 1,000.
The shareholders can then decide whether to cash out the dividends or reinvest them in additional shares.

Dividend Type

Companies can distribute dividends to their shareholders in various forms. Likewise, depending on the frequency of declarations, there are two main types of dividends paid to shareholders, namely -

Special dividends

This type of dividend is paid in common stock. This is often issued in certain circumstances when the company has accumulated large profits over several years.
Most of these benefits are seen as excess cash that will not need to be used at a particular time or in the near future.

Preferred dividends

Such dividends are issued to the owners of preferred stock and usually have a fixed amount that is paid out every three months. In addition, dividends of this kind are earned on stocks that function more like bonds.
Additionally, the list below highlights the most common types of dividends.


Most companies prefer to distribute dividends to their shareholders in cash. Typically, such income is transferred electronically or extended in the form of a check.


Some companies may reward their shareholders in the form of physical assets, investment securities, and real estate. However, the practice of offering assets as dividends is rarely carried out by companies.


Companies offer shares as dividends by issuing new shares. Usually, stock dividends are distributed on a pro-rata basis, where each investor gets dividends depending on the number of shares he has in a company.

Common stock or common stock

Usually, it is the profit paid to the common stockholders of the company from their share of the accumulated profits. This portion of dividends is often determined by law, especially when the dividends are set to be paid in cash and could result in the liquidation of the company.
Additionally, the company may decide to offer the new company's stock, warrants, and other financial assets as dividends. Nonetheless, it should be noted that dividend income tends to influence a company's share price.

How to Calculate Dividend Income?

Dividends are calculated using the dividend payout ratio, where the annual dividend per share is divided by earnings per share. The ratio can be expressed as -
Dividend Payout Ratio = Dividends paid / reported net income
Specifically, the dividend payout ratio is 0% for companies that do not offer dividends to their shareholders. Likewise, a company that pays out a total net income as dividends has a dividend payout ratio of 0.
Likewise, the retention ratio can be calculated by dividing dividends paid per share by earnings per share. The same can be expressed as -
Retention Ratio = Dividend per share / Earnings per share
With the help of the dividend payout ratio, one can easily find out the amount of money a company is offering its shareholders.
Furthermore, ratios are useful for calculating the amount reinvested to expand and improve the company's operations, pay off existing debt, or build cash reserves.
It has also proven useful in assessing the sustainability of a company. For example, a company with a payout ratio of more than 100% indicates that it pays more than what shareholders earn.
Ultimately, such practices will force companies to reduce their offerings or cut them out altogether. On the other hand, companies with stable dividend payout ratios show a strong financial position.

What is the Impact of Dividends on Stock Prices?

It should be noted that distributing dividends to shareholders may not affect the overall value of the business venture.
Regardless, such a move tends to decrease the overall equity value of the venture by the exact amount paid as dividends. To further elaborate, dividends once paid will be debited from the accounting books on a permanent basis and is an irreversible step.
Furthermore, when the company declares dividends, its share price experiences a significant increase which is regulated by market activity.
They are more likely to pay a premium in hopes of getting dividends. However, the share price begins to fall by the same proportion after the date the dividend rights expire. Such reductions usually occur when new investors are deemed ineligible to receive dividends and are therefore reluctant to pay the associated premiums.
Likewise, if the market is anticipated to remain optimistic until the ex-dividend date, the increase in share value may be higher than the dividend offered. Regardless of the reduction, such events often lead to an increase in the overall value of the company's shares.
Regardless, in order to understand the impact of dividend announcements on share prices, individuals need to understand the important dates regarding dividends.

Difference between dividend and capital gain

Dividends are cash payments or additional shares made from company profits, while capital gains represent an increase in the value of shares.
Dividends represent immediate shareholder income when they are rewarded whereas capital gains are not earned until stock is sold
Dividends can be scheduled or paid at the discretion of the board of directors and can be reinvested or cashed by shareholders, while capital gains are based on the market value of the company, not the decision of the board.

Why So Many Investors Focus On Dividends?

When deciding which common stock to include in your investment portfolio, focusing on dividends offers several advantages.
For starters, dividend yields on company stock can serve as a kind of signal about undervaluation or overvaluation.
Also, academic research from generation to generation has consistently proven that the so-called “quality of earnings” for companies that pay dividends is higher than for those that do not pay dividends. Over time, this means that companies that pay dividends tend to outperform companies that don't pay dividends
Good companies have a history of maintaining and increasing their dividends even during times of economic downturn.
For example, many investors hold stakes in affordable luxury companies, called toothpaste investments, such as The Hershey Company or Colgate-Palmolive. As a stable investment, this type of company continues to pay dividends.
During times of economic stress, dividends can create a kind of floor underneath a stock that prevents it from falling as far as companies that don't pay dividends.
This is the reason dividend stocks tend to fall less during bear markets. Additionally, dividends can speed up rebuilding your portfolio by providing you with income to reinvest.
As an added incentive, dividend income is taxable. While regular dividends are taxed at the same rate as income tax, eligible dividends are taxed at the rate of net capital gain, which can be lower.


That's a complete discussion of dividends you need to know. Whether you are an investor or a business owner, knowing what dividends are is important to creating a mutually beneficial environment for your business. For business owners, managing a business properly will always make the business profitable and in the end, it will pay dividends to its investors.
Also, do good financial management and prepare financial reports that match real business data so you can increase the confidence of your investors. Avoid time-consuming and error-prone manual bookkeeping.
The solution is to use accounting software that is easy to use and has the features your business needs.
Finally, it can be said that potential investors who want to invest in stocks that produce high dividends must be familiar with the concept of dividends first.
Consecutively, they must consider various factors and related financial parameters to measure the scope for making a profit by investing in the stock.

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